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          如何提高翻譯的水平?

            翻譯是專業外語學習必須掌握的最后一項基本功。說它是最后一項,并不是不重要,而是因為這項技能是專業外語學習到一定程度才能嘗試,換句話說,并不是一開始這種技能就能練習的。說到底,翻譯最能體現外語學習者的綜合能力。外譯漢相對要簡單些,而漢譯外則需要很好的專業外語基本功。這就是為什么翻譯課程到了高年級才開設的原因。如何提高翻譯的水平?上海翻譯公司為您簡單介紹一下。

            翻譯是一種跨文化的交際。熟練操作一門外語的人才能在外語與母語間穿梭,游刃有余。這里,我想強調一點,那就是母語的重要性。

            先說句題外話。去年這個時候大家都在討論上海幾所高校自主招生不設語文考試的做法,說實話,這是典型的數典忘祖的行為。這也是我前面一篇博文中提到的“全民外語”的最極端表現。說到底,語文不是“語言文字”,而是“語言文化”。為什么我們總感覺到港臺的學者文人的國學功底比我們要厚實些?因為他們可能更能感受到遠離漢語文化中心而產生的某種憂慮與渴求。

            學習外語的可能都有這種感受,一開始,你會感覺到外譯漢很簡單,而漢譯外則相對要難度大;而到后來,逐漸的,你會發現,有很多你能理解的外語篇章或句子,竟然很難找到恰如其分的對應表達。那種境況真可謂抓耳撓腮,坐立不安。仔細琢磨,這都是因為母語文化基本功不扎實所致。因此,要想練好翻譯,不論是口譯還是筆譯,都要把自己的母語與文化學好。

            在低年級階段,可能的翻譯練習就是簡單的句子或對話,而這些句子或對話都是活學活用的,翻譯練習時為了鞏固所學知識與語言點。因此,低年級階段的翻譯還談不上是真正的翻譯。不過,低年級階段要為高年級的翻譯學習打好基礎。除了扎實的語法知識以外,我們至少還要積累一定的詞匯量,稍微寬泛的知識面。這一階段要多去閱讀、甚至背誦文字優美的篇章。

            高年級階段,除了課上練習的翻譯活動外,還有很多種方法來提高自己的翻譯水平。廣泛閱讀各類中外文相關資料,或者對照閱讀部分篇章。我有一個經驗,比如大家都很撓頭的政策性較強的文本翻譯,大家可以這樣去做。我們首先要熟悉此類文本漢語的表達,一些固定短語與句子都要爛熟心中;其次,當我們去閱讀此類的譯文時,我們可以在心里默默試譯,在業已儲備的漢語表述詞句中搜尋最恰當的表達。

            說到文學翻譯,我們翻譯起來困難會更大一些。建議在翻譯課上開設“文學翻譯賞析”,我們可以找一個甚至是幾個譯本來跟原文對照閱讀,體會其中的優劣,分析譯者的技巧與手法,最后嘗試著拿出自己的“綜合性優選譯本”。比如,當我們學習“古詩詞俄譯賞析”時,我們可以找盡可能多的譯例來比較閱讀,有時候,這種閱讀還會幫助我們更深入地理解原文的意境與內涵。如李白的《靜夜思》,我在網上就找到了6個不同的譯例,每個譯例都有它獨到的地方,如果我們把這6個譯本放到一起比較,再對應原文,細細體會其中的些微差異,相信一定會大有裨益。

            關于翻譯我還有一點兒個人的體會。我曾聽一位專家作報告,他建議大家每天翻譯五句話。如果天天堅持下來,那會是多少?!其實,翻譯練習可以隨時隨地進行。比如,我們在看電視新聞時,你可以把新聞標題口譯出來;看電視劇、電影時,可以把有趣的對話翻譯一下,哪怕是主要意思也可;看書上網時,你也可以隨時拿出一段來譯譯。此外,國內有些網站上有些帶中文字幕的俄文原版電影與電視劇,大家不妨來看看,邊看邊聽邊譯,還可以挑錯呢。大家不妨一試。

            我如今有個習慣,這兩年參加的各種會議挺多,有時候還要聽一些長篇大論。我自取其樂,把發言人的話即興翻譯成俄語記下來,當然,我也是記他的發言要點,遇到一時譯不出的,記下來,回來后趕緊翻閱字典。

            處處留心皆學問啊!我相信這句話。

            Translation is the last basic skill that must be mastered in professional foreign language learning. It's not unimportant to say that it's the last one, but it's because this skill can only be tried after professional foreign language learning to a certain extent. In other words, it can't be practiced at the beginning. In the final analysis, translation can best reflect the comprehensive ability of foreign language learners. Translating from foreign to Chinese is relatively simple, while translating from Chinese to foreign requires good professional foreign language skills. This is why translation courses are not offered until the senior year.

            Translation is a kind of cross-cultural communication. Only those who are proficient in a foreign language can shuttle between the foreign language and their mother tongue. Here, I want to emphasize the importance of mother tongue.

            Let's start with a digression. At this time last year, everyone was discussing the practice of independent enrollment of several colleges and universities in Shanghai without setting up a language examination. To be honest, this is a typical act of forgetting one's ancestors. This is also the most extreme expression of "foreign language for all" mentioned in my previous blog post. In the final analysis, Chinese is not "language" but "language culture". Why do we always feel that scholars from Hong Kong and Taiwan have more solid knowledge of Chinese culture than we do? Because they may be more able to feel the anxiety and desire of being far away from the Chinese culture center.

            Learning a foreign language may have this feeling. At first, you will feel that translating from Chinese into foreign language is very simple, while translating from Chinese into foreign language is relatively difficult. Later, gradually, you will find that there are many foreign language chapters or sentences that you can understand, but it is difficult to find the appropriate corresponding expression. That kind of situation can be described as scratching one's ears, fidgeting. If you think about it carefully, it's all because the basic skills of mother tongue culture are not solid. Therefore, if you want to do a good job in translation, whether it is interpretation or translation, you should learn your mother tongue and culture well.

            In the lower grade stage, the possible translation practice is simple sentences or dialogues, and these sentences or dialogues are flexible, in order to consolidate the knowledge and language points. Therefore, translation in the lower grades is not really translation. However, the lower grades should lay a good foundation for the higher grades. In addition to a solid knowledge of grammar, we should at least accumulate a certain vocabulary, a little broad knowledge. At this stage, we should read and even recite more beautiful texts.

            In the senior stage, in addition to the translation activities in class, there are many ways to improve their translation level. Read all kinds of related materials in Chinese and foreign, or read some chapters. I have an experience. For example, we can do the translation of texts with strong policy nature, which we are all scratching our heads. First of all, we should be familiar with the Chinese expression of this kind of text, and some fixed phrases and sentences should be familiar with our hearts. Secondly, when we read this kind of translation, we can try to translate it silently in our hearts, and search for the most appropriate expression in the reserved Chinese expressions.

            When it comes to literary translation, it will be more difficult for us to translate. It is suggested that "literary translation appreciation" should be set up in the translation class. We can find one or even several versions to compare with the original text, experience the advantages and disadvantages, analyze the skills and techniques of the translators, and finally try to come up with our own "comprehensive optimal translation". For example, when we learn "appreciation of Russian translation of ancient poetry", we can find as many translation examples as possible to compare reading. Sometimes, this kind of reading will help us to understand the artistic conception and connotation of the original text more deeply. For example, in Li Bai's "meditation on a quiet night", I have found six different translation examples on the Internet, each of which has its own unique features. If we compare these six versions together, and then compare them with the original, I believe it will be of great benefit to have a detailed understanding of some slight differences.

            I have some personal experience about translation. I once heard a report from an expert who suggested that you translate five sentences every day. In fact, translation practice can be carried out anytime and anywhere. For example, when we watch TV news, you can interpret the news headlines; when we watch TV plays and movies, you can translate interesting dialogues, even the main meaning; when we read and surf the Internet, you can also translate a paragraph at any time. In addition, there are some original Russian movies and TV dramas with Chinese subtitles on some domestic websites. You may as well take a look at them, listen to them and translate them. You can also pick up mistakes. You might as well have a try.

            Now I have a habit of attending many meetings in the past two years, and sometimes listening to long speeches. For my own pleasure, I translated the speaker's words into Russian impromptu and wrote them down. Of course, I also wrote down the main points of his speech. If I couldn't translate them for a while, I wrote them down. When I came back, I quickly turned to the dictionary.

            I believe in that.

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